Analysis of the ‘silver’ Labrador population

Introduction

‘Silver’, ‘charcoal’, and ‘champagne’ are not recognised as colours existing in the Labrador Retriever. The only recognised colours are black, yellow and chocolate (liver). The original St. John dogs, brought from New Foundland to England in the early 1800s, were black, and to improve the breed several other breeds were introduced, like Golden Retriever, Flatcoat Retriever, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, and Curly Coated Retriever.  This affected the colours of the Labrador. Although black has been the favorite colour for many decades, yellows were accepted in the early 1900s. Most breeders didn’t breed chocolates because they weren’t fashionable. Only after the war, more specifically in the 1960s, chocolates became more popular, although they’ve always been around.

Colour defects, like black and tan, a heritage from the Gordon Setters that once were used to improve the breed, were never allowed. Labradors with these defects were either culled or rehomed as pets, without a pedigree certificate. If – and I say if – the dd gene causing dilutes has ever been in the Labrador, for instance through Norwegian Elkhounds that were used to improve the undercoats of Labradors, this defect would have been eliminated by selective breeding, way back in the 1880s. Given that all ‘silver’ Labradors come from America, and that all American Labradors come from England, it is extremely unlikely that the ‘silver’ gene originated in England. This is why I must assume that the ‘silver’ gene was introduced in American Labradors, way after the time it was allowed to breed-in other breeds. Looking at the early ‘silver’ Labradors it seems plausible to me that the Weimaraner was used for this purpose.

In the 1950s a gun dog magazine published an advertisement from Kellogg’s kennels, in which they announced a litter of ‘rare gray Labradors’. Founded in 1899 by L.E. Kellogg and Harold E. Kellogg, Kellogg’s kennels are believed to be responsible for bringing the first Labrador Retrievers west of the Mississippi River. Mayo Kellogg, the ‘founding father of the American pointing lab’ introduced the ‘pointing Lab’ in his South Dakota line as early as 1946 and set out, over the next 40 years, to show that a pointing retriever is superior to a retrieving pointer. Mayo passed away in 2003 leaving his kennel to his son Hugh who reported that 95% of his buyers ask for labs that point. These people weren’t normal breeders, they were businessmen, always looking for new trends to introduce. They weren’t just breeding Labradors, they bred all kinds of dogs. It was a family business for many generations, and the American free spirit made them inventive. They knew every trick in the book to register a mixed breed as a full bred dog. Why wouldn’t they do what the early English Labrador breeders did in the 1800s, only more professional and scientific? Who would stop them? The first American Labrador was registered in the AKC in 1917, and in 1927 only 23 Labradors were registered. After a 1928 AKC article in the magazine American Kennel Gazette called “Meet the Labrador Retriever” the Labrador became well known. Only then Kellogg’s kennels became involved in Labrador breeding, because it meant business.

Of course, when in the 1960s the chocolate Labrador became more popular, Kellogg’s kennels were amongst the first to introduce them in the U.S. on a broad scale. And now that chocolates were in fashion, why wouldn’t they have another go at the grays, and call them ‘silver’ Labradors?

In the 1980s Dean Crist (Culo kennels) and (in the 1990s) Beavercreek kennels both decided to follow the footsteps of Kellogg’s kennels. They were going to specialise in ‘silver’ Labradors, so they bought themselves a couple of dogs, probably descending from Kellogg’s stock. Back in the 60’s puppies and dogs were running all over the Kellogg’s farm and record keeping was not as strict as today, so it was very easy for dogs to mix and breed. If a chocolate Labrador bred with a Weimeraner, then all resulting chocolate puppies would look like field type Labradors and would then be registered as Labradors. The same applies to the puppies from black and yellow Labradors who were – intentional or not – bred by Weimaraners. These were the founding dogs of ‘charcoal’ and ‘champagne’ Labradors.

The dilute gene

“Silver”, “charcoal” and “champagne” aren’t recognised colours in Labradors, as the dilution gene (dd) comes from the Weimaraner after the era in which it was tolerated to breed in other breeds into the Labrador population. These dogs possess the homozygous autosomal recessive alleles “dd” at the D locus, found on canine chromosome #25. The gene at the D locus is commonly called the “dilution” gene but is more correctly termed the “melanophilin” gene or “MLPH.” When a Labrador who carries the dilution gene (dd), is bred with another Labrador who also carries the dilution gene (dd), puppies can be produced in the litter that are either carriers of the dilution gene (dd), are not carriers of the dilution gene (dd), or who are affected by a dilute colour, being silver, charcoal, or champagne.

A “silver” Labrador is dilute or lighter shade of a chocolate Lab, while a “charcoal” Labrador is dilute or lighter shade of a black Lab, and “champagne” is a dilute or lighter shade of a yellow Lab. All these dilutes carry the dilution gene (dd). While AKC, UKC ACA, etc register them as purebred Labs,  according to their “foundation” genetic colouring, being either black (charcoals), chocolate (light silvers), or yellow (champagnes), most non breeders of these shades insist there was intermixing at some point in time. In any case, no kennel club officially recognizes “silver”, “charcoal” or “champagne” as legitimate colours for Labrador retrievers, so beware spending a large amount of money on a dog where the seller claims otherwise.

Response of Robert Young of AKC on March 27, 2000, giving AKC’s official position on the issue of “silver” Labs. Consensus at the “Silver Lab” meeting held on July 14, 1997.

  • 1) The foundation for the AKC registry is based on parentage and not colour.
  • 2) We should register all Lab pups coming from purebred AKC registered Labs.
  • 3) We should not register Labs as “Silver.”
  • 4) After a review of pictures, the file and history of this issue which goes back to 1987, we feel the most appropriate color for registration is Chocolate.
  • 5) We will entertain complaints of impure breedings on an individual basis, but complaints should be based on more than colour.
  • In 1987 we conducted an inquiry into the breeding of the litters that contained the dogs that were registered as silver and one of our representatives was sent to observe several of the dogs that had been registered as silver. Colour photographs of these dogs were forwarded to the office of the American Kennel Club where the staff of the AKC and the representatives of the Labrador Retriever Club of America examined them. Both parties were satisfied that there was no reason to doubt that the dogs were purebred Labrador Retrievers, however both parties felt that the dogs were incorrectly registered as silver. Since the breed standard describes chocolate as ranging in shade from Sedge to chocolate, it was felt that the dogs could more accurately be described as chocolate than as silver.

The Issue of the Silver Labrador

Frances O Smith, DVM, PhD Chair, Labrador Retriever Club, Inc. Genetics Committee

It is the opinion of the Labrador Retriever Club, Inc., the AKC parent club for the breed, that a silver Labrador is not a purebred Labrador retriever. The pet owning public is being duped into believing that animals with this dilute coat color are desirable, purebred and rare and, therefore, warrant special notoriety or a premium purchase price.

Over the past few years a limited number of breeders have advertised and sold dogs they represent to be purebred Labrador Retrievers with a dilute or gray coat color—hence the term “silver labs.” The AKC has accepted some of these “silver labs” for registration. Apparently, the rationale for this decision is that the silver coat color is a shade of chocolate.  Interestingly, the original breeders of “silver” Labradors were also involved in the Weimaraner breed.

Although we cannot conclusively prove that the silver Labrador is a product of crossbreeding the Weimaraner to a Labrador, there is good evidence in scientific literature indicating that the Labrador has never been identified as carrying the dilute gene dd.  The Weimaraner is the only known breed in which the universality of dd is a characteristic.

Typical or not?

Dean Crist (Culo), who calls himself the ‘most experienced breeder of silver Labs in the world’, told the public that ‘silver’ was a ‘mutation of chocolate’. The American breeders of ‘silver’ Labradors call their field-type dogs ‘typical’, contrary to the show-type Labradors, who they call ‘English style Labs’. And indeed, if you look at some black & white photographs of light ‘silver’ Labradors, it might as well be any yellow field-type Labrador from the American countryside. So these Labradorbilly’s are regarded as the standard, while the ‘English style Labs’ are regarded as alien to America. And that is how these breeders explain the similarity between their field types and the Weimaraner. However, business is business and many ignorant people would love to buy a ‘silver’ Labrador, if only it would look more like an ‘English style Lab’, with famous ancestors in their pedigrees. So these breeders started to use well known English style stud dogs, usually on carriers of the dd gene, to be able to meet the demand. Dean Crist: “Crist Culo Kennels’ Silver pups are of two physical types. Thick boned and stocky or lean and long legged.”

CPLR, the club of dilute breeders, published this explanation in their newsletter, issue 3, Sept. 2009, in which they blame an English Labrador for the poor type of their dogs: “That some of the “silvers” are houndy looking is also not due to a Weim — it comes from a particular (mostly English show-bred) bitch of the 1970s. Dudly Culo
(whom I’ve seen in person) was descended from her, and was her spitting image from nose to tail, including her poor head and ears. Since most of the current “silvers” are heavily linebred on Dudly Culo and his sisters, it should surprise no one that this poor type became exaggerated and set into the current “silver” lines.”

Yet the CPLR praise the breeder of these ugly mutts: “Just as the 3rd Earl of Malmesbury is revered as the founder and one of the fathers of the Labrador Retriever breed, without whose foresight as devotion we would not have the Lab as we know and celebrate it today, likewise Dean Crist is indisputably the Father of the magnificent Silver Labrador Retriever; his foresight and absolute devotion has brought the Silver Lab out from obscurity and into the spotlight.”

‘Silver’ Labradors in the LabradorNet database

As serious Labrador breeders would want to avoid the appearance of “silver”, “charcoal”, or “champagne” in their lines, I’ve decided to add the dd-carrying and dd-affected Labs that come to my knowledge to the LabradorNet database. To be able to find all the dd-carriers and dd-affected Labradors in the LabradorNet database, as well as their ancestors, and otherwise related dogs, just follow these simple steps:

  1. Go to the LabradorNet database.
  2. In “Field to search” choose “Color”
  3. In “Search string” enter “Beware!”
  4. Click the button “Search now”

Studying the ‘silver’ Labrador population

When Dean Crist started his Culo line of ‘silver’ Labs there were hardly any known ‘silvers’ with which to breed. As a result, the Culo line became heavily line-bred, as his dogs were bred to their close relatives, to preserve the trait. In the mid 1990s Beavercreek also entered the field. Now there were two lines. Beavercreek contacted Dean Crist and they exchanged a few puppies. In the early 2000s the ‘silver’ Labrador became more popular, so more breeders entered the arena, most of them with Culo dogs, Beavercreek dogs, or both. Today, in 2012, many, many generations later, the ‘silver’ Labrador population has a fairly viable gene pool, with seven distinct, (almost) unrelated lines. As a result, the average COIs (Coefficient Of Inbreeding) are often not higher than those of other Labrador lines.This means that we shouldn’t underestimate the ‘silver’ population. The LabradorNet database is a powerful tool to keep your lines far from the ‘silver’ lines. Use this tool when people want to use your stud dog(s) and check the pedigrees of their bitches thoroughly. (At the bottom of this page you will find some names of people who are active in the breeding of dilutes.)

They call themselves “nondiscriminate breeders”. “We believe all colors of labs are created equal. We do not support the idea of one color of lab being inferior to another from any biggoted group. Therefore we breed all colors of the labrador retriever.” 

So, if I wanted a brindle or black-and-tan Labrador, they would breed it for me? This is what you get if you project the ethics of human genetics on dogs, and mix it with misplaced religious dogmas. “All people are created equal” etc then becomes a new dogma: “All Labradors are created equal”. In the eyes of people ignorant enough to follow these dogmas, we must be racists, to say the least. I wonder if there are any intelligent ‘silver’ breeders…

Vitiligo, black-and-tan, brindle, silver, charcoal, champagne, etc., these are all mismarkings in the Labrador Retriever. You may think it’s ‘cute’, ‘rare’, or ‘special’, and sure enough  it’s a market mechanism. Anything rare or scarce has a higher market value, which shouldn’t be a problem if these dogs would be an asset to the breed. But it’s easy to prove they’re not. Any serious Labrador breeder who comes across such mismarkings will eliminate them in his or her lines and make sure these dogs aren’t bred. Any breeder who doesn’t subscribe to these general ethics, is unethical. It’s as simple as that. It’s got nothing to do with ‘created equal’, religion, or whatever other nonsense these people tell you to make a buck. And now they have their own Council for Purebred Labrador Retrievers. Read my article about this shady bunch. 

What if… ?

Someone asked me, “Why couldn’t there have been ‘silvers’?” Well, that’s obvious. There weren’t many Labrador breeders in the early years, before they found their way from the U.K to the U.S. (Breeding Labradors was anything but a backyard activity, like it became in the U.S.) The breeders of this era wrote about their breeding experiences. Some of them published their findings in books. That’s how we know they came across yellows and chocs, black & tans, brindles, vitiligos, etc. For over 50 years never was anything like ‘silver’, ‘charcoal’, or ‘champagne’ mentioned in their reports. Therefor it’s safe to say that the ‘silver’ Labrador (the dd-gene) is alien to the U.K., the homeland of the Labrador Retriever, and that none of the English Labradors that were shipped to the U.S. carried the dd-gene. A mismarking like that wouldn’t have been unnoticed for over 50 years. So it’s safe to say that the ‘silver’ originated in the U.S. in the 1950s. Scientists still aren’t able to prove how the dd-gene entered some American Labradors, while it was never seen in English Labradors, but it’s a fact that the gene is alien to the Labrador.

Now that they’re here, can’t we just accept them?

No, the studbooks are closed. The Labrador is a very popular dog, and many have tried to breed their own version of the Labrador, resulting in ‘Labradoodles’, etc. Fouling the genes of the Labrador population with those of the industrious products of breeders who want to take advantage of the Labrador’s popularity is simply unacceptable. The only ethical reason to breed is maintaining and improving the breed, and the dogs carrying the dd-gene are certainly no asset to the breed. So yes, go ahead and breed ‘silvers’, ‘charcoals’, ‘champagnes’, etc., but call them ‘Labrananers’, not Labradors.

The ‘silver’ Labrador in Europe

At present the breeding of ‘silver’ Labradors in Europe is a marginal enterprise of a fringe group of people, taking place on the internet. These people are not accepted by regular, serious Labrador breeders. A guy from Germany thought to make a lot of money with a ‘silver’ Labrador stud from the U.S. (Stillwater kennels). He got himself a special internet domain with the name of his stud, advertised at hundreds of shady (free) websites, but only a few breeders responded, and now he can’t afford the internet domain, so he had to cancel it. Although breeders of ‘silver’ Labs act like they’re just one of many ‘ordinary’ Labrador kennels, they’re not actually part of the Labrador community. Many of them are extremely secretive when it comes to the ancestors of their dogs, and if they need fresh blood they either need to fool respectable breeders, or buy from puppy mills. It’s a good thing that puppy buyers in general are becoming more aware and more critical. Google is a powerful tool to check a breeder and a puppy’s background, and with the information provided, they can easily draw their conclusions.

Please note: due to an error the name of Dian Welle ended up in the list below. This was a terrible mistake, because Dian has never been a breeder of any colour other than the three standard colours of Labradors. Her anti-silver stand is legendary. She was on the front lines when it was new back in the 1980s, and she’s firmly in the anti-silver camp.

Some names of people who are – or were –  active in the breeding of dilutes. (Source: AKC pedigree certificates, published on the internet.)

James R. Bacon, Gloria R. Bacon, Sue Vajgrt, Bill Crabtree Jr., Elizabeth Fouts, Troy Creel Little, Craig Sattler, Michael Sattler, Steve M. Ivocic, Maria C. Ivocic, Pidge Daniel, J. Scot Daniel, Meredith Wagoner, Pam York, Kristin Hutzelmann, Brad Matheny, Christy Lee Belden, Cheryl Marie Flynn, Michael W. Gipson, Vickie K. Savage, Christine M. Dellamaggiore, Kate Nickel, Debra A. Henriques, Kellyn Gandy, Lance Gandy, Travis Snead, Mark S. Forgaren, Laurian Garner, Kirk Garner, Lloyd Z. Nolt, Jacqueline Dyson, Bobby Martin, June Martin, Dean Reed, Heidi Witt-Ward, Tim Witt, Kathleen Crowe, W.M. Earl Higginbotham, Brian A. Joseph, Marcie L. Joseph, Patricia Jagoda, Rod McNeal, Lisa L. Arce, Derrick Munson, Meigan Munson, Renee Haseleu, Mary Anne Sterling, Mike Lankas, Suzan Gaston, Brad Vanregenmorter, Linda F. Vanregenmorter, Melanie Magelhaes, Antonio Magelhaes, Todd Van Wickel, Gary Cordell, Steven Jackson, Jennifer Corcoran, Mollie Chaney, Josh Chaney, Heidi Grassi, Bridget Ohms, Seth Ohms, Steven Campbell, Tamela Campbell, Rebecca Daniels, Ed Walko, Marie Arrowood, Norris Arrowood, Wayne Stading, Nancy Stading, Devin Blackburn, Lauren Blackburn, Josh Davis, Patricia Clardy, Brad Neathery, Bud Beckett, Debi Beckett, Tim Bockman, Randy Hoffman, Cathy Hoffman, Dean Crist, Jennifer Smith, William O’Dell.

This article’s popularity: 634 page views per day after only 2 days of publication, visible in Google’s top ten, 63% of the visitors coming from the U.S., where ‘silver’ Labs are most controversial. Target achieved.

silovergoogleUpdate April 26, 2013: this article is still going strong. Nr. 1 in Google, using “silver labradors” as search terms.

 

About Jack Vanderwyk

Hey! What am I like! :-)
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18 Responses to Analysis of the ‘silver’ Labrador population

  1. sylvia says:

    well written Jack! Thanks for the work you put into this .. will keep an eye open for new names/breeders in silver etc .; and forward!

  2. Grace Cohen-Janssen says:

    TOP ARTICLE you wrote Jack!
    The only way to extinct the FAULTBREEDERS who are poluting OUR LABRADORBREED with SILVER COLOURED FAKE LOOK A LIKE LABRADORS, is SPREADING THE WORD (This article).I ‘ll share and maybe we ought to put A WARNING MESSAGE on sites as MARKTPLAATS and EBAY?

  3. Some people have tried to reply with ‘silver’ propaganda, using fake names and fake e-mail addresses. These replies will not be published.

  4. Grace Cohen-Janssen says:

    One thing for sure: These propagandists are NOT REAL LABRADOR lovers!
    There pollution of our PURE LABRADOR BREED is based on collecting MONEY, MONEY,MONEY!!
    The only way to “eleminate” these fault breeders is to spread the “truth ” WORLDWIDE about these “fake” silver coloured look a like Labradors.AWARENESS by WARNINGS on the worldwide web will “KILL” there BUSINESS!

  5. I’ve updated the article.

  6. Grace Cohen-Janssen says:

    I’ve red the article update.In fact “flabbergasted” about the number of “unethical “Labrador breeders around the world!

  7. One of the anonymous people trying to post their propaganda here calls himself Grand Granger, uses IP nr. 134.250.50.174, which is registered to Southern Utah University, Cedar City, Utah. I wonder if his employer is aware of this.

  8. Teresa Gordy says:

    Jack, thank you from the bottom of my heart. Although we are a world apart, I am sending you a BIG HUG right now through cyber space. Just so you know, all the hard work you have done, are doing is sincerely appreciated from Labrador breeders and fanciers around the world.

  9. Marie Murray says:

    Great article Jack !!! Off to share with all my Labrador owning friends across the UK as this is a very current subject at the minute here . With a litter advertised recently for stupid amounts . People need educating !!!

  10. Matt Brewer, from Heritage Labradors, wrote, “You are apparently oblivious to the fact that Americans don’t give a flying shit what you think about Silver Labradors.”
    I beg to differ, Matt.

  11. Teresa Gordy says:

    Hey Matt, I am an American and I do give a flying shit and so does over 90 percent of the AMERICAN Labrador Loving population.

  12. Pat F. says:

    A fascinating article, even for one such as myself, who has never bred Labradors and who does not understand genetics very well. I have had, many years ago, the privilege of having a wonderful show-quality black Labrador (his breeder later became an AKC conformation judge) in my family.

    My only criticism, a mild one, is that you refer to ‘silver labs’ as “ugly mutts” (“Yet the CPLR praise the breeder of these ugly mutts”). The dogs are not responsible for the human decisions or negligence that contributed to their existence; and I don’t like to hear any dog referred to as “ugly” unless it has an “ugly” temperament. Many mixed-breed and crossbreed dogs are physically attractive; which does not justify trying to pass them off as a purebred. The dog in the picture strikes me as a rather handsome dog who is not a Labrador Retriever; just look at the eyes and the shape of the head. It’s a nice-looking crossbreed or mixed-breed.

    It is sad that unethical people are trying to present a line of crossbreeds as purebreds. The purpose of continuing to breed purebreds is to adhere to a standard, to keep the breed looking and behaving a certain way; and colors are part of that standard. I would not want any mutation or throwback in a purebred litter to be killed because of a deviation from the standard (unless the dog has obvious health problems that cannot be cured), but it should not be bred from (and the dog is not going to care).

    I applaud your diligence and research skills and, of course, your love of the Labrador Retriever breed.

  13. Doerte Neitzel says:

    Hi Jack, greets from Germany where – unfortunately – the Weimadors (or Labraraners as you call them) are becoming more and more popular. People want something “special” at any cost. So your article inspired me to spread the information here in german blogs and internet based communites as most of the information about the silverlings yout get is in English. So: Thanks for your article that brings all the information I need together. Keep on with it! Cheers, Doerte

  14. Hi Jack, sending you my thoughts. Thank you so much for your dedication to the Labrador Retriever.

    I would challenge Labrador Retriever Breeders to raise the price for purebred Labrador Retriever puppies! by Thousands! If the public wants rare! and unique! and are purchasing mixed breed dogs with the moniker “Labrador” (because they like the color) then Labrador breeders should counter the advertising by promoting the “True Breed – the Labrador Retriever ” the” #1 Dog of all time “. Think of it in terms of – the real thing – and the knock off! (Rolex comes to mind)
    The true and trustworthy Labrador Retriever we all know and love should now come at a higher price because it is genuine and the fake being advertised is just that. Expose how wrong these designer breeds are.. The pet purchasing public is not hearing the cry from reputable long time Labrador Breeders who abhor the introduction of the dilute gene which will change the Labrador Retriever forever by basically genetically altering it to what it has never been. But breeders must change the perception of the public by making the “True Labrador” something of greater value and advertise ” not carrying the dilute gene ” and that Labrador puppy buyers are purchasing a “true Labrador retriever”.
    Raise the price – to own a true purebred Labrador Retriever that does not carry an unknown health risk, and is within the guidelines for breed standard, and does not carry the undesirable genetically introduced dilute gene! State it and Advertise it.
    I believe the true pure bred Labrador to be substantially more desirable than any designer breed that will always come with unknown health risks, but breeders need to understand public perception and counter advertise.
    For many years the Labrador Community has worked hard and had dedicated much money to research tests to eliminate and mark health concerns for the Labrador breed. Many of these tests funded by Labrador clubs and ethical breeders possibly may not indicate or be inclusive of or comprehend the diversified health concerns of dogs that carry the dilute gene . The dilute gene puts all breeders of Labradors back into unknown health territory risks. Labradors Retrievers are #1 . Why? Because of loyalty, willingness, biddability and overall good health and with the introduction of another breed weimaraner, the one breed known to carry the dilute (d) gene) everything about the dog becomes genetically unknown..
    The current gene pool of the Labrador Retriever is healthy and vast and that alone creates an optimistic future for the breed. Solid, mindful companions and willing workers a true Labrador Retriever comes in Black, Yellow and Chocolate as per the world wide Labrador Retriever Clubs, dedicated owners and breeders.
    My message is to Breeders….. counteract the silver message.

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